Challenges of Measuring Scope 3 Emissions

, 11 minute read

Quick summary: Navigate the complexities of measuring Scope 3 emissions with insights into data accuracy, supply chain estimations, and more. Discover how to overcome challenges and enhance sustainability efforts.

Accurate and comprehensive carbon Footprint assessments are of paramount importance in the evolving landscape of environmental sustainability. As organizations strive to minimize their environmental impact, one critical facet that often poses challenges is the measurement of Scope 3 emissions. 

According to Carbon Trust, Scope 3 emissions account for 70% of the total carbon footprint of some organizations, highlighting the impact of indirect emissions. 

Value chain emissions, sometimes referred to as Scope 3 emissions, are greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that originate from an organization’s operations but are not directly under its operational control. The entire value chain of a business, including its suppliers, clients, and other stakeholders, is linked to these emissions. In this blog post, we unravel the multifaceted challenges in measuring Scope 3 emissions and delve into the intricacies that make this  aspect of sustainability management both crucial and demanding. 

Emission Scopes 

Scope 1: Direct emissions from sources under the organization’s ownership or control, such as those from company-owned automobiles or on-site fuel combustion. 

Scope 2: Indirect emissions produced by the organization’s use of heat, steam, or electricity that was purchased. 

Scope 3: Indirect emissions that result from an organization’s operations but are not directly owned or under its direct control. Typically, the entire value chain, including upstream and downstream operations, is linked to scope 3 emissions. 

The indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions connected to a company’s full value chain, including suppliers, consumers, and other stakeholders, are included in the scope of value chain emissions, sometimes referred to as Scope 3 emissions. These emissions, which are beyond the organization’s direct operational control, come from a variety of sources, including the usage of sold products, the consumption of acquired goods and services, business travel, employee commutes, upstream transportation and distribution, and end-of-life care.  

Why are Scope 3 Emissions important? 

Organizations must measure Scope 3 emissions if they want to have a thorough grasp of their environmental impact outside of their core business activities. They can use it to identify important emission sources in their value chain, work with suppliers to promote sustainability and reduce risks associated with climate change.  

  • Largest Source of Emissions 

Scope 3 emissions can make up more than 70 % of a company’s GHG emissions and can reach close to 100% in finance industries. 

  • Risk Management 

Tracking Scope 3 emissions will enable companies to identify vulnerabilities in their value chain to changing regulations like mandatory disclosures and carbon pricing. 

  • Consumer Trust 

Reducing Scope 3 emissions helps organizations to cut their carbon footprint and gain the trust of consumers. 

  • Investor Expectations 

Investors tend to set their own reduction targets and look at an enterprise’s sustainability practices before making an investment. 

  • Regulatory Compliance 

Disclosure of Scope 3 emissions is mandatory under regulations like the TCFD. 

Challenges in measuring Scope 3 emissions 

  • Lack of reliable and accurate data 

Inaccuracy in measurements is the biggest challenge in carbon management.  Companies rely on data shared by their supply chain partners or third-party data to make estimations. This poor data quality is a major concern.  

According to a report from BCG, less than 10 % of companies accurately and comprehensively measure their Scope 3 emissions. 

Collecting accurate data from multiple suppliers across the supply chain is challenging. 

  • Complexity in data 

Within intricate supply chains, companies often rely on partner-shared data for estimating their Scope 3 emissions. However, when supply chain partners provide inaccurate data or estimates, it can disrupt the calculations. Let us consider a large food processing company that sources produce from various farmers. These farmers use fertilizers for crop cultivation, which are produced by yet another company using raw materials. Emissions are generated at each step of this chain, from raw materials to fertilizer production and onwards to food processor. The use of different transportation modes across multiple locations further adds to the complexity. Each partner’s calculations are based on estimations derived from emission factors, industry averages or other calculation methods. These estimations add up to a lot of data complexity within expansive value chains. 

  • Lack of measurement 

Many suppliers do not measure their emissions. Emission measurements are more trustworthy and accurate when they are collected using reliable data collection techniques, consistent data exchange procedures, and standardized reporting frameworks. As a result, businesses are better equipped to make decisions, monitor their progress, and efficiently manage their environmental impact along the whole value chain. 

  • Lack of standard disclosure formats 

There is a significant variance in the methodologies and metrics that companies use to measure Scope 3 emissions. The measurement and management of indirect emissions are hampered by a lack of transparency and standardization. Comparing and combining emission data becomes challenging without uniform techniques and reporting standards. While the GHG protocol Scope 3 standard and calculation guidance provides some idea for companies to calculate their value chain emissions, it leaves many questions unanswered. The use of supplier- specific, hybrid, average and spend-based methods come with their assumptions and data uncertainties. The calculation approaches selected should be transparently disclosed to stakeholders. 

  • Resource-Intensive 

The calculation of Scope 3 emissions requires personnel, resources, expertise and efficient data management processes that are difficult to align across the company’s value chain. Companies find that data collection alone is a time consuming and manual process, taking as much as 6 to 9 months for data collection, as the key data owners have to be identified. The cost requirements are also very high.


  • Collaboration with Suppliers 

Measuring indirect emissions is significantly complicated by the restricted access to supplier data. Getting complete and accurate emission data from suppliers can be challenging for organizations. Increased collaboration, openness, and engagement with suppliers are required to address this issue.  

Measuring Scope 3 Emissions 

What are the Calculation Methodologies? 

It is difficult to allocate emissions along the value chain. It entails figuring out ways to link emissions to certain processes, goods, or value chain participants. These criteria, including activity-based data, emission intensity, and functional units, must all be carefully taken into account throughout the allocation process.  

In order to measure the greenhouse gas emissions of an organization, baseline emissions must be established. It necessitates gathering information on both direct and indirect emissions, establishing a time frame, and applying uniform techniques. Baseline emissions( are used as a benchmark for measuring progress, establishing reduction goals, and assessing the success of emission reduction programs. 

Carbon baselining is the process of measuring and quantifying the amount of carbon that is stored in the soil, plants, and other organic matter on a farm. In agriculture, this process involves measuring the carbon stocks of a farm to establish a baseline or starting point for carbon management. 

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Calculating greenhouse gas emissions requires carefully choosing the relevant emission factors. The typical number of emissions produced per unit of activity or product is represented by emission factors. Selecting variables that are compatible with the particular activities, processes, and energy sources involved is crucial. This necessitates taking into account regional variances, industry-specific standards, and the most recent data. 

Measures adopted to minimize greenhouse gas emissions must be tracked and their effects must be quantified in order to be taken into account. It necessitates tracking the execution and success of particular efforts, such as raising energy efficiency, switching to renewable energy, streamlining processes, or altering transportation habits. 

What are Categorization and Scope Boundaries? 

Finding and categorizing the many emission kinds that are pertinent to an organization’s operations entails determining relevant emission categories. This method necessitates taking into account the precise operations, market segments, and emission sources related to the organization’s value chain.  

In order to measure and manage emissions, defining organizational boundaries entails figuring out the range and depth of an organization’s operations and activities. Identifying the physical and operational boundaries, such as buildings, assets that are owned, and operational control, is part of this.  

Organizations may manage their full value chain emissions, spot possibilities for emission reductions, and promote sustainability throughout the lifespan of their goods or services by addressing both upstream and downstream operations. 

Organizations can better understand their environmental effect and spot potential for emissions reductions throughout the product’s life cycle by taking these indirect emissions into account. This knowledge can help with sustainable design decisions, encourage the use of energy-efficient products, and promote ethical disposal and recycling habits. 

Reporting and Verification 

Creating standardized methods and guidelines for measuring, reporting, and revealing greenhouse gas emissions is a necessary step in establishing reporting frameworks and norms. These frameworks offer organizations a standardized and clear format for reporting their emissions data, assuring comparability and authority among various bodies. 

Implementing stringent procedures to evaluate and validate data on greenhouse gas emissions is necessary to ensure reporting accuracy and completeness. It calls for thorough data gathering, the use of trustworthy measurement methodologies, and regular auditing or outside verification.  

The practice of enlisting third parties to impartially analyze and validate an organization’s greenhouse gas emissions data and reporting is known as third-party verification and assurance. This entails employing certified third-party auditors or assurance companies to judge the veracity, accuracy, and completeness of the reported emissions data.  

A key component of effective communication is emphasizing the organization’s dedication to managing Scope 3 emissions, sharing pertinent information and methodology, outlining emission reduction tactics, and illustrating progress toward sustainability objectives.  

Engagement and Collaboration 

Cooperation with partners and suppliers entails teaming together with them to tackle sustainability issues and cut greenhouse gas emissions along the value chain. As part of this collaboration, parties set explicit expectations for environmental performance, promote best practices, participate in collaborative efforts, and share sustainability goals. 

Promoting open and cooperative exchange of environmental data across stakeholders is a key component of encouraging data sharing and transparency. This involves urging partners, clients, and suppliers to divulge their sustainability and emissions statistics. Organizations can better understand their value chain emissions, spot areas for improvement, and inspire group action for emission reductions by increasing openness. 

Building measurement and reporting capacity entails acquiring the information, abilities, and tools required to accurately measure and report greenhouse gas emissions. This includes delivering instruction and training on methods for calculating emissions, gathering data, and reporting frameworks. 

Working together with other organizations in the same industry or sector to address shared sustainability concerns and promote group action is referred to as collaboration with industry peers and initiatives. Participation in trade groups, sustainability programs, and websites that promote knowledge exchange, the sharing of best practices, and cooperative projects are all examples of this partnership.

How TraceX solutions help in Scope 3 emissions accounting? 

TraceX’s DMRV solutions play a pivotal role in addressing the challenges of measuring Scope 3 emissions. By providing a comprehensive and unified platform, TraceX enables companies to collect, track and validate emission data across their entire value chain. Through real-time data capture and monitoring, it ensures accurate and granular information, eliminating the reliance on estimations and providing a clear understanding of emission sources. This robust system enables companies to collaborate effectively with supply chain partners, promoting data accuracy and accountability. By facilitating transparent reporting and verification processes , the DMRV solution empowers organizations to confidently measure and manage their Scope 3 emissions, promoting informed decision making and driving sustainability across the value chains. 


Organizations must address a number of issues related to detecting and managing greenhouse gas emissions, especially Scope 3 emissions. Incomplete and fragmented data, a lack of supplier control and visibility, restricted access to supplier data, a lack of standardization and transparency, and the difficulty in assigning emissions throughout the value chain are some of these problems. Establishing precise baseline emissions, choosing suitable emission factors, and taking into account several stakeholders and borders are necessary to address these difficulties. 

Organizations may effectively measure, control, and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by addressing these issues and putting forth effective solutions, which will show their dedication to environmental stewardship and help create a more sustainable future. 

Empower your organization to take control of your emissions data and drive meaningful change. Join the ranks of forward-thinking companies that are leveraging TraceX solutions to accurately measure and manage their Scope 3 emissions.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Scope 3 emissions represent indirect greenhouse gas emissions generated by a company’s value chain activities, including suppliers, customers, and other stakeholders. These emissions can be challenging to measure because they occur outside a company’s direct control and involve complex data collection from various sources.

Inaccurate data and estimations from supply chain partners can significantly impact the accuracy of calculating Scope 3 emissions. When partners provide unreliable or incomplete data, it can lead to overestimations or underestimations of emissions, making it challenging for companies to develop effective emission reduction strategies.

Using advanced technologies and tools like TraceX can help streamline data collection, automate calculations, and ensure consistency in measurement. By integrating accurate data and adopting standardized methodologies, companies can enhance their ability to measure, manage, and reduce Scope 3 emissions effectively.
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